Here we have collected and summarised a wide range of research regarding UV exposure, sunbeds and vitamin D for you to read and download. This can be a great way to educate yourself and other staff members not only on the tanning process but the most up-to-date reports focussing on both indoor and outdoor UV exposure.

UV Exposure


In defence of the sun – William Grant

Grant’s article looks back at past advice regarding UV exposure and compares this to more recent studies. It is concluded that increased exposure may correlate to decreased cancer and cardiovascular diseases.


Risks and benefits of UV radiation in older people: More of a friend than a foe? – F. Wright & Richard Weller

A consideration of the risks and benefits of sun exposure in the elderly. Weller and Wright conclude there should be a review of recommendations for the elderly regarding sun avoidance as this may be detrimental to both Vitamin D synthesis and other health endpoints. 


Sunlight has Cardiovascular Benefits Independently of Vitamin D – Richard B. Weller

Weller discusses that there is a correlation between increased sun exposure and reduced population blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality. However, this is not due to vitamin D and thus cannot by replicated by a vitamin supplement.

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Ultraviolet radiation surpasses obesity and symptoms of metabolic syndrome independently of Vitamin D in mice fed a high-fat diet – Sian Geldenhuys et al.

This clinical study investigates whether UVB radiation and/or Vitamin D supplementation modifies the development of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. It concludes many UV radiation benefits are not reproduced by Vitamin D supplementation.


The health benefits of UV radiation exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways. Blood pressure and cardiovascular disease – Richard B Weller

Although this article addresses the possible link between sun exposure and an increased risk of skin cancer, Weller concludes that the prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths is around 100 times higher than those from skin cancer. Weller then reiterates the benefits of UV radiation on cardiovascular health and all-cause mortality.


Beneficial effects of UV radiation other than via vitamin D production – Asta Juzeniene & Johan Moan

This article discusses the positive effects of UV radiation excluding vitamin D synthesis. This namely focuses on UVA and NO, explaining the benefits on the cardiovascular system, autoimmune system as well as other bodily systems. It is concluded however, that it is difficult to truly separate the benefits of vitamin D synthesis from UV radiation.

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Vitamin D


Shedding new light on the role of the sunshine vitamin D for skin health: the lncRNA-skin cancer connection – Michael Holick

Holick discusses how the sun has always played a crucial role in our production of vitamin D. The effects of vitamin D on the body are then considered before it is concluded that sensible sun exposure, and thus increased vitamin D levels, reduces the risk of disease.


Vitamin D and UV exposure in chronic kidney disease – Rolfdieter Krause et al.

A study which attests that intermittent UVB exposure with a sun-stimulation spectrum (tanning device such as a sunbed) is effective to treat and protect against vitamin D deficiency in chronic and end-stage kidney disease patients.    


Vitamin D, light and mental health – Mats B Humble

This report addresses Vitamin D deficiency’s effect on mental health. It also provides two cases where patients’ psychiatric improvement correlated with increase Vitamin D levels.


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Prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in Dutch psychogeriatric nursing home residents by weekly half-body UVB exposure after showering: a pilot study – VGM Chel et al.

It’s suggested that Vitamin D production by UVB exposure may be preferable to supplementation: it can’t cause toxic levels, helps to prevent polypharmacy, plus there are indications that UVB exposure has beneficial effects on health and well being by mechanisms other than the Vitamin D pathway alone.


Sunlight and Vitamin D – Matthias Wacker & Michael F Holick

This study addresses numerous diseases, refers to previous research and iterates the importance of vitamin D and its effects on the human body both as a supplement and through UV exposure. This also discusses treatments for vitamin D deficiency before concluding there is no downside to increasing vitamin D levels but instead it would simply improve overall health and wellbeing.



Sunlight and Vitamin D: Necessary for Public Health – Carole A Baggerly et al.

This article addresses present recommendations for UV exposure from organisations such as WHO. Their argument for avoidance of sun exposure is questioned, with counterarguments regarding vitamin D synthesis and UV light therapy being used to explain the necessity of UV in our lives. It is demonstrated that an avoidance of UV radiation ultimately can lead to vitamin D deficiency and a myriad of physiological issues.

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A Critical Appraisal of the Recent Reports on Sunbeds from the European Commision’s Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks and from the World Health Organisation – Michael F Holick et al.

This appraisal questions the WHO’s conclusions, arguing these assessments appear to be based upon incomplete, unbalanced and non-critical evaluations of literature. This appraisal is further supported by data and current scientific research.


Vitamin D, sun, sunbeds and health – Johan Moan et al.

A discussion centred around the importance of vitamin D synthesis from UV exposure. This article considers both the advantages and disadvantages of exposing oneself to UV light.


The effects of a mid-winter 8-week course of sub-sunburn sunbed exposures on tanning, vitamin D status and colds – Frank R de Gruijl & Stan Pavel

An investigation into the use of sunbeds during winter as a source of vitamin D which concludes the sunbed regimen proved more effective than an oral supplementation 

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Sunbeds as Vitamin D sources – Johan Moan et al.

This investigation explored whether repeated short exposure to commercial sunbeds acted as a good source of Vitamin D. It concludes sunbed exposure is “surprisingly efficient” at maintaining summer levels of Vitamin D during the winter months.           


Tanning is associated with optimal vitamin D status (…) and higher bone mineral density – Vin Tangpircha et al.

This investigation compared the vitamin D levels of sunbed users in comparison to those who do not use tanning beds. It is concluded that those who used sunbeds had a vitamin D status 90% higher than non-tanners. It was also noted that the tanners had significantly higher bone mineral density too, reflecting the fact that higher vitamin D levels can aid the prevention of weaker bones.


Sunbeds with UVB radiation can produce physiological levels of serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in healthy volunteers – Samantha M Kimball et al.

This investigation observes the vitamin D levels of volunteers throughout a 12 week course of sunbeds. It is concluded that UVB exposure could be a surrogate for sunlight, especially during winter months and in northern countries which lack as much UVB radiation, due to it’s ability to achieve the desired physiological levels of Vitamin D.

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